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You do not have JavaScript enabled. Please enable JavaScript to access the full features of the site or access our non-JavaScript page. Issue 39, Previous Article Next Article. From the journal: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. You have access to this article.

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Please wait while we load your content Something went wrong. Try again? Cited by. Back to tab navigation Download options Please wait Supplementary information PDF K. Article type: Paper. DOI: Download Citation: Phys. The book begins with a discussion of the nature and definition of SC and its general use in the design of novel SX reagents. Chapter 2 expands the subject of ion-pair recognition to introduce outer-sphere recognition of metal complexes.

Chapter 3 reviews the literature on calixarenes as extraction reagents for metal ions.


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Chapter 4 extends the utility of this chemistry, describing the use of calixarenes for the extraction of biomolecules. Chapter 5 examines the liquid-liquid interface as an expression of supramolecular phenomena in SX, reviewing interfacial aggregation in model two-phase systems and metal extraction systems. The final chapter explores the problem of aggregation in SX, the historical attempts to understand it, and recent progress that has been made in addressing the issue. Passar bra ihop. Muraviev and Ruslan Khamizov I.

Introduction II.

Concluding Remarks References 4. Experimental Work V. Summary and Outlook List of Symbols References 5. Tripp and Dennis A. Clifford I. Computer Modeling IV. Process Recommendations V. Summary and Conclusions References 6. Hussey and Gary L. Foutch I. Cleareld, G. Nancollas, and R. Davankov, S. Rogozhin, and M. Bolto and D. Janauer, Robert E. Gibbons, Jr.

Ion exchange methods

Samsonov and G. Sosinovich, Larissa V. Novitskaya, Vladimir S. Gamble, Jacob A. Marinsky, and Cooper H. Judson King and John J. Noble, J. Douglas Way, and Annett L. Tarasov and Gennady A. Pletnev and Yuri A. Tavlarides and J. Kney and Arup K. Sole and Peter M. Ayen and James D. Environmentalists are primarily concerned with the presence of heavy metals, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and radionuclides in groundwater, surface water, drinking water, and aqueous efuents due to their high toxicity and impact on human and aquatic life.

Adsorption using activated carbon is well established for the removal of organic molecules from aqueous solution but to a much lesser extent for the removal of toxic heavy metals.

About the Series

Of course, polymeric ion-exchange resins are applied for water treatment and for trace metal removal under extreme conditions, ranging from highly acidic to highly alkaline solutions. The high sorption capacity of these materials, usually greater than that of carbonaceous adsorbents, and good selectivity toward metal ions render them attractive candidates for a wide range of appli- cations.

However, the use of ion-exchange resins involves signicant capital and operating costs. Activated carbons are generally a cheaper alternative because they are derived from renewable natural materials although the operating costs remain a signicant factor. In recent years, stringent statutory regulations were introduced to reduce the discharge of toxic metals to low levels at the source, particularly from plating shops and other metal processing industries.

The threshold limits given in Table 1 are achieved partially by minimization and recycling of existing resources. With the increasing demand for cleaner water, attention has been focused on improvements to existing treatments and the development of new techniques and materials. The removal of metal contaminants from efuent streams has the advantage of reducing the cost of waste disposal.

In most cases, the treatment of wastewater gives rise to secondary efuents. General methods applied to the removal of metals include ion exchange, precipitation, coagulation, occulation, evaporation, and membrane processes. In some cases, the metal can also be recovered in a useful form. A variety of materials have been investigated for the removal of metals from metallurgical efuents.


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Conventional activated carbons are used extensively in water treatment for removal of color, odor, and organic contaminants [2,3]. These carbonaceous materials possess the potential for removal of inorganic species from efuent streams. Activated carbons have high porosities and high surface areas and are prepared from readily available carbonaceous precursors such as coal, wood, coconut shells, and agricultural wastes.

These precursors are normally exposed to a number of different activation methods in an effort to achieve an activated carbon with the most favorable properties for a particular application. The texture of activated carbons can be adapted to suit the situation by adequate choice of the activation procedure. Removal of metals by conventional activated carbons has been studied by a number of authors In general, ordinary activated carbons possess a large surface area but have a relatively low capacity for metal ions.

Modied activated carbons have been examined as alternatives to conventional polymeric ion-exchange resins. By far the most widely developed large-scale application of activated carbon in hydrometallurgy is the recovery of gold from dilute cyanide leach solutions. An extensive review of this process is given by Bailey [7]. Tai and Streat [8] reported the ion-exchange reactivity of oxidized carbon for the removal of copper, zinc, and nickel from solution. In this chapter, we discuss the preparation, properties, and metal sorption performance of a range of as-received and oxidized samples of granular and brous activated carbon that were either prepared or modied in our laboratory.

Samples were evaluated for the removal of trace toxic metal ions from aqueous solutions. Batch and column experiments were performed to elucidate the relationship between sorptive performance and the physical and chemical structure of these materials. The EU and UK national standard for any individual pesticide in drinking water at the point of supply is 0. In , the most frequently detected pesticides in UK drinking water supplies were atrazine, simazine, isoproturon, diuron, chloroto- luron, and mecoprop.

Atrazine is one of the most difcult herbicides to remove from potable water supplies and as a consequence was prohibited from nonagricul- tural uses in England and Wales in Since that time there has been an increase in the use of alternative herbicides for both agricultural and nonagricultural purposes. Imazapyr and triclopyr are two of a group of four herbicides benazolin, bentazone, imazapyr, and triclopyr that have been identied as alternatives.

These herbicides are more soluble in water than atrazine and therefore also constitute a potential pollution hazard. The average concentration of the pesticides in source waters is generally below the legal limit of 0. However, seasonal variations Activated Carbons and Carbonaceous Materials 3 in the use of pesticides results in concentrations that signicantly exceed the limit, so that the source cannot be used for drinking water production.

Data provided by the UK Environment Agency show the maximum concentration of each herbicide under investigation during sampling in , , and see Table 2.


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  7. The adsorption of herbicides onto activated carbon is also discussed in detail in this chapter, and the ndings are compared with data for a set of novel hyper- cross-linked polymer phases that offer an alternative approach for the treatment of potable waters. As a consequence, there is a rich diversity of structural forms of solid carbon because it can exist as any of several allotropes. It is found abundantly in nature as coal or as natural graphite and also in much less abundant form as diamond.

    Engineered carbons can take many forms, e. The principal reasons that engineered carbons nd extensive use as adsorbents are their porous and highly developed internal surface area and the complex nature of their surface chemical structure.